Electrostatic

Induction and Conduction

 

1. Electrostatic Induction

Arrangement of charges in an object which influenced by other nearby charges

 

Before induction

 

\begin{tikzpicture} [+preamble] \usepackage{tikz} [/preamble] \draw (0,0) rectangle (2.5,2.5); \draw (6,0) rectangle (8.5,2.5); \node at (0.5,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (0.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (0.5,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (0.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (6.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (6.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (6.5,1.5) [red] {-}; \node at (6.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,1) [red] {-}; \node at (7,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,2) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (7.5,1.5) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,1) [red] {-}; \node at (8,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,2) [red] {-}; \node at (1.25,-0.5) {positive charge atom}; \node at (7.25,-0.5) {neutral atom}; \end{tikzpicture}

After induction

 

\begin{tikzpicture} [+preamble] \usepackage{tikz} [/preamble] \draw (0,0) rectangle (2.5,2.5); \draw (3,0) rectangle (5.5,2.5); \node at (0.5,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (0.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (0.5,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (0.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (2,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (3.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (3.5,1) [red] {-}; \node at (3.5,1.5) [red] {-}; \node at (3.5,2) [red] {-}; \node at (4,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (4,1) [red] {-}; \node at (4,1.5) [red] {-}; \node at (4,2) [red] {-}; \node at (4.5,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (4.5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (4.5,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (4.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (5,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (5,1) [blue] {+}; \node at (5,1.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (1.25,-0.5) {positive charge atom}; \node at (7.25,-0.5) {neutral atom}; \end{tikzpicture}

Opposite charges will attract and closer

 

 

 

2. Electrostatic Conduction

Movement of charges from one object to another when connected by wire or touch each other

 

Before connected

 

\begin{tikzpicture} [+preamble] \usepackage{tikz} [/preamble] \draw (0,0) rectangle (2.5,2.5); \draw (6,0) rectangle (8.5,2.5); \node at (0.5,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (0.5,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (0.5,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (0.5,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (6.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (6.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,2) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,2) [red] {-}; \node at (1.25,-0.5) {negative charge atom}; \node at (7.25,-0.5) {neutral atom}; \end{tikzpicture}

After connected

 

\begin{tikzpicture} [+preamble] \usepackage{tikz} [/preamble] \draw (0,0) rectangle (2.5,2.5); \draw (6,0) rectangle (8.5,2.5); \draw [-latex, thick, teal] (2.5,1.25) -- (4.25,1.25); \draw [teal, thick] (4.25,1.25) -- (6,1.25); \node at (0.5,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (0.5,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (0.5,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (0.5,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (1.5,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,0.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (2,2) [teal] {-}; \node at (6.5,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (7.25,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (8,1) [teal] {-}; \node at (6.5,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (7.25,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (8,1.5) [teal] {-}; \node at (6.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (6.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (7,2) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,0.5) [red] {-}; \node at (7.5,2) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,0.5) [blue] {+}; \node at (8,2) [red] {-}; \node at (1.25,-0.5) {negative charge atom}; \node at (7.25,-0.5) {negative charge atom}; \node at (4.25,2.25) [teal] {movement of}; \node at (4.25,1.75) [teal] {electrons}; \end{tikzpicture}

Movement of electrons

 

Only negative charge (electron) can move. Positive charge cannot move.

Electron moves until the number of electrons on both objects are same.

At example above:

Number of electrons in object 1 is 16 electrons and in object 2 is 4 electrons. After connected by wire, 6 electrons move from object 1 to object 2, that makes object 1 and 2 has the same electrons now, which is 10 electrons.

 

Exercise

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